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Government and society Constitutional framework The 1964 constitution, under which Malta became an independent monarchy and parliamentary state, was in 1974 to make Malta a republic within the.
Malta is currently a unitary multiparty republic.
The Maltese parliament consists of a unicameral House of Representatives and is fashioned on the British model.
Members of the parliament are elected by for five-year terms.
An adopted in 1996 guarantees a majority of seats to a party receiving more than 50 percent of the total votes cast in the general election.
The parliament appoints the president, who is head of state.
The president acts on the advice of the cabinet, which is headed by thewho is the head of the government.
Local government Local government was established in Malta in 1993.
The country is divided into 68 localities, 14 of which are in.
Each locality is administered by a local council elected by the residents of the locality by proportional representation every three years.
The Department for Local Government oversees the councils.
Justice Maltese law, which was codified mainly during the period from 1854 to 1873, is largely based on the and Napoleonic law.
Criminal proceedings and fiscal and maritime legislation follow Englishbut judicial precedent is not binding.
Maltese is the language of the courts.
Civil and criminal jurisdiction is almost exclusively vested in the Superior Courts and the Court of Magistrates.
The chief and other members of the judiciary are appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister.
Political process Maltese citizens aged 18 and older are eligible to vote.
The island is deeply polarized in its politics; since independence the two major parties, the Nationalist Party Partit Nazzjonalista; PN and the Malta Labour Party Partit Laburista; MLPhave alternated in power.
Voter turnout in Malta has traditionally been high, with generally more than nine-tenths of eligible voters casting ballots.
From 1972 to 1987 Malta followed a government bonus malta 2019 of nonalignment, and in 1987 a neutrality clause was included in its constitution.
Malta maintains its own regular armed forces.
Military service is voluntary for those of at least age 18.
Health and welfare The government of Malta has always played a central role in the provision of health care by offering a array of free health services and preventive opinion betrally bonus code 2019 impossible to Maltese citizens.
State hospitals and clinics are complemented by private hospitals, which have proliferated since the 1990s.
Since 1988 the island of Malta has been home to the United Nations International Institute on Ageing INIAwhich has made the island a centre of geriatric care and research.
In 1956 was introduced to cover employees, the self-employed, and unemployed persons.
A comprehensive contributory insurance scheme was introduced in 1972, a variety of earlier legislation.
In 1979 this program was to introduce an earnings-related retirement pension.
The 1994 consolidated earlier legislation and also incorporated noncontributory schemes.
Until 1986 in Malta was administered through three separate laws: the Old Age Pensions Act of 1948, the National Assistance Act of 1956, and the National Insurance Act of 1956.
In January 1987 these acts were consolidated into the Social Security Act.
Education From the early 1970s until the mid-1980s, the government radically altered the education system, which was previously structured on British models and strongly influenced by the.
Compulsory education was extended to include all children ages 5 to 16.
The streaming of students by age and government bonus malta 2019 and through examinations was at first discarded but later reintroduced.
At the tertiary level, a student-worker scheme was introduced in 1978, with students working for six months and studying for six months, thereby linking admission to higher educational institutions to the availability of employment.
This system was largely revoked by the Education Act of 1988, and admission to institutions of higher learning is now based completely on competence.
The former was founded as a Jesuit college in 1592, established as a state institution in 1769, and refounded in 1988.
It offers courses in most and has a prestigious medical school.
Its modern campus at Tal-Qroqq also houses the International Maritime Law Institute and the Mediterranean Academy of Diplomatic Studies.
MCAST, founded in 2000, mainly offers vocational and and has institutes on Malta and Gozo.
Cultural life Cultural milieu The of Malta is reflected in a mixture government bonus malta 2019 Arab and Italian traditions.
The Maltese are highly literate and have a deep appreciation of the arts.
The Italian painter and the Maltese poet are considered major contributors to art and literature in Malta.
Folk traditions have evolved mainly around the festa that celebrates the of a village, which is marked by processions and fireworks.
Daily life and social customs As a Roman Catholic country, Malta celebrates with colourful processions in several villages.
Mnarja, thetakes place on the weekend preceding June 29 in Buskett Gardens in.
The annual is celebrated in various villages in Malta, but the main events take place in Valletta, where vigorous dancing displays that include the Parata, a the Maltese victory over the Turks in 1565, and Il-Maltija, the Maltese national dance, are performed.
Independence Day is celebrated on September 21, and Republic Day is on December 13.
The arts In addition to unique Neolithic ruins, Malta contains important examples of its flourishing architectural school of the 17th and 18th centuries, which was essentially Classical with a balanced overlay of Baroque decorations.
A was developed by Richard England and others.
The composer Charles Camilleri introduced folk themes into his works, while Maltese literature was enriched by the poetry of the national bard, Dun Karm.
An interesting theatrical upsurge led by John Schranz paralleled the emergence of Francis Ebejer as a brilliant playwright.
Alfred Chircop and Luciano Micallef have gained prominence with their abstract paintings, Gabriel Caruana has excelled in ceramics, and Anton Agius is a noted sculptor.
Maltese soprano Miriam Gauci and tenor Joseph Calleja are internationally renowned.
Jamesan old military building that was transformed into an arts centre in 2000.
The National Library of Malta dates from the late 18th century and houses a large collection as well as the archives of the Hospitallers.
The Maritime Museum and the Museum of Political History are located at.
Sports and recreation As a consequence of its colonial history, Malta developed a sporting tradition much influenced by its former British rulers, with an emphasis on polo, rugby, athletics track and fieldand especially football soccer.
A national basketball league was formed in 1960, and there are dozens of amateur teams throughout Malta and Gozo.
Swimming,billiards, and tennis are also popular sports.
Malta made its Olympic debut at the 1928 Summer Games in Amsterdam.
Media and publishing Until the early 1990s, Maltese radio and television stations were operated exclusively by a state-appointed body, but a change in legislation opened the way for privately operated broadcasting outlets.
Radio and television in Malta are broadcast in several languages.
Several government bonus malta 2019 and weekly newspapers in both Maltese and English are published.
Both major political parties operate their own television channel, radio station, and newspaper, while the Roman Catholic Church has its own radio station and newspaper.
Early history The earliest archaeological remains in Malta date from about 5000 bce.
Neolithic farmers government bonus malta 2019 in caves such as those at Għar Dalam near or villages such as Skorba near Żebbiegħ and produced similar to that of contemporary eastern.
An elaborate evolved sometime after 4000 bce.
Initially centring on rock-cut tombs such as those at Żebbuġ and Xemxija, it culminated in the unique underground burial chamber hypogeum at inknown locally as Raħal Ġdid.
Abundant human remains, as well as statues, pots, jewelry, and otherhave been unearthed at Ħal Saflieni, which was designated a UNESCO in 1980.
This culture came to a sudden end about 2000 bce, when it was replaced by the Tarxien Cemetery culture, a metal-using civilization that practiced a burial rite.
This culture in turn was supplanted by the Borġ In-Nadur people 1450—800 bcewhose settlements were founded on naturally defensible hilltops.
Between 900 and 800 bce, people settled at Baħrija and were known for their distinct type of pottery.
Evidence is scanty, however, and a few inscriptions found on Malta an important indication of a Phoenician presence.
For example, a prehistoric temple at Tas-Silġ near Marsaxlokk was converted into a Phoenician one.
There is more substantial proof of the presence from the 6th century bce; coins, inscriptions, and several rock tombs of the Punic i.
It is certain that in 218 bce Malta came under political control, forming part of the praetorship of Sicily.
During the first two centuries of Roman occupation, the islands were allowed to coin their own money, send delegations to Rome, and control domestic affairs.
Numerous collective underground burial places dating from the 4th to the 8th century ce represent the first archaeological evidence of Christianity in Malta.
With the division of the Read more Empire in 395 ce, Malta was given to the eastern portion ruled from Constantinople now Istanbul.
Until the 15th century, it followed the more immediate fortunes of nearby Sicily, successively under rule 535—870 ce and Arab rule 870—1090 ; both groups left a strong mark on the language and customs.
A short period of Angevin rule 1266—82 was followed by Spanish rule 1282—1530when the islands were governed by a succession of feudal lords.
In 1530 the Holy Roman emperor ceded Malta to the homeless Order of the Knights of Rhodes subsequently the and Military Order of the Knights of Malta; seea religious and military order of the Roman Catholic Church.
The new capital city offounded in 1566, became a town of splendid palaces and unparalleled fortifications.
Growing in power and wealth—owing mainly to their maritime adventures against the Ottomans—the Knights left the island an architectural and artistic.
Although there was little social contact between them and the Maltese, the Knights managed to imprint their character on Malta and its inhabitants.
Modern history In 1798 French army officer Napoleon Bonaparte later captured the island, but the French presence was short-lived.
By the here of 1800 British troops that had been called in to assist the Maltese had arrived.
The French held out for three months before they surrendered the island to the British.
The returned the island to the Knights in 1802.
The change was ratified by the 1814—15.
Maltese claims for local were dismissed bybut they never abated.
The island flourished during the 1853—56 and was favourably affected by the opening of the in 1869.
Self-government was granted in 1921 on a dyarchical basis whereby Britain retained control of foreign and military affairs, while a newly created Maltese legislature was responsible for local issues.
As such, Malta reverted to a strictly colonial regime in which full power rested in the hands of the governor.
During 1939—45 the island underwent intense and prolonged bombing by the but did not surrender.
Self-government was granted in 1947, revoked in 1959, and then restored in 1962.
Malta finally achieved independence on September 21, 1964, becoming a member of the and subsequently a member of the.
Malta became a republic on December 13, 1974.
From 1962 to 1971, Malta was governed by the Partit Nazzjonalista; PNwhich pursued a policy of firm alignment with the West.
The MLP formed a special friendship with China and and negotiated an agreement that led to the total withdrawal of British forces from Malta by 1979.
The PN was returned to office think, next vip slot march 2019 realize 1998; it reactivated the application for accession to the EU and ushered in major social and economic changes in pursuit of that goal.
After considerable political wrangling between the PN and the MLP, Maltese voters in a 2003 referendum chose to join the EU, of which Malta became a member on May 1, 2004.
Malta adopted the euro as its currency on January 1, 2008.
The PN was again returned to power in 2008, winning the general elections over the MLP by a small margin of votes.
In May 2011 Maltese voters approved a referendum recommending the legalization of.
Until then Malta had been the only EU country, and one of only a few countries worldwide, without a divorce law.
Legislation permitting divorce was passed by the parliament in June and put into effect in October.
In 2013 the MLP, now known as the Labour Party after the name was changed in 2008, was returned to power with a relatively large majority and broadly adopted the same policies as the PN.
The Labour Party did, however, take a more progressive position on social issues; 2014 saw passage of a bill legalizing civil unions for same-sex couples in spite of strong opposition from the Roman Catholic Church.
Amid allegations of corruption and calls to step down, Prime Minister Joseph Muscat called snap elections in 2017.
He government bonus malta 2019 on a booming economy with low unemployment, rapid growth, and a budget surplus and promised additional economic benefits and.
When elections were held in June, he was returned to the premiership with the Labour Party enjoying an absolute majority in parliament.
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